Judicial Services Examination or PCS (J) -Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Examination is for law graduates to become District Magistrates, Additional District Magistrates, Munsiffs or District Judges in India. Lower judiciary examinations are conducted by each state’s Civil Service Commission. Members of the subordinate judiciary are appointed by state governments under the supervision of the respective superior courts on the basis of the score obtained in this competition. The exam consists of two stages: the preliminary exam with multiple choice questions and the main exam with descriptive questions.
Judge as a career in India
Becoming a judge in the Indian justice system gives you unprecedented respect and importance in the country. A judge is one of the most respected and crucial positions in the Indian justice system. Apart from that, becoming a judge brings many social and economic benefits to the life of an aspiring judicial service. Responsibility for administering, managing, controlling, interpreting and enforcing the laws in accordance with the constitution of India in the country. Becoming a judge takes a lot of hard work, determination, dedication and patience. All decisions in India, in which the question of the law is raised, are made by the judicial system. Indian judges have delivered landmark judgments which have won the respect and recognition of the Indian justice system around the world. The justice system has the power to bring justice to victims of various types of crimes in India and issues related to social problem and serious crimes.
Judicial Services: Job Profiles
The list of different job profiles related to legal services in India is provided below.
- Commissioner for Oaths
- District and session judge
- Attorney General
- Legal adviser
- Deputy magistrate
Judicial Services: Required Skills and Abilities
Candidates who wish to become a judge must possess certain specific qualities, skills and competences, as indicated below.
- Critical thinking: Judges must have the ability to judiciously assess the evidence provided when making a decision accordingly.
- Listening skills: Judges should be able to listen attentively to statements by defendants during trials and hearings.
- Writing skills: Judges should know how to write their verdicts, decrees and instructions.
- Oral Communication Skills: Instructions given by judges at a hearing or trial should be clear and concise.
- Reading skills: Judges should be able to understand complex documents.
- Problem Solving: Judges should be able to identify, detect and resolve problems.
Judicial Services: Roles and Responsibilities
A candidate who has obtained his law degree is eligible to apply for most forensic examinations in India. Since the judiciary enjoys enormous authority and respect in India, it comes with many responsibilities and duties. The important functions of a member of the judiciary are listed below.
- The judges decide whether the evidence is acceptable or not.
- They have the power to issue decrees on petitions filed by a lawyer.
- They have the power to question witnesses.
- They listen to testify the necessary evidence.
- They are authorized to instruct the jury.
- They listen to complaints from accusers and defenders.
- In civil cases, judges are empowered to determine liability or damages.
- In criminal court, determine the guilt or innocence of the accused and impose penalties on the accused convicted.
- They inform the accused of their constitutional rights.
- They are responsible for interpreting the law to specify how to proceed with a trial.
- Interpret and apply laws or precedents to make judgments.
- They are responsible for resolving disputes between the parties or determining the outcome of other types of problems.
- Judges teach young people how to examine the facts on the basis of the evidence presented in trials.
- They are responsible for reading and evaluating information on motions, protest requests, records, and other documents.
- Judges write their opinions, verdicts and instructions on cases, claims and controversies.
- Preside over administrative hearings and read opposing arguments.
- Judges are responsible for participating in pre-trial authorization or guilty plea consultations.
- They conduct the initial process in criminal cases.
- They are responsible for accepting and approving search and arrest warrants.
Judicial Services: Level of appointment
The Constitution of India establishes a three-tier judicial system for the Indian state. The hierarchy of the judicial system in India is presented below in descending order.
- Supreme Court of India,
- High Courts in different States, and
- Subordinate courts.
Therefore, the judges of these three levels are appointed by different authorities in India.
Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (SC)
At the apex of India’s three-tier justice system is the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court is the largest and final court of appeal according to the Constitution of India. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India (CJI) is the highest adjudicating office in the country and is the oldest and highest judge of the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court of India has the Chief Justice of India (CJI) and 30 additional justices and its jurisdiction covers the entire country. The President of India appoints the CJI after consulting with other members of the judiciary of the Supreme Court and the High Court. The maximum age for the office of South Carolina judge is 65.
Jurisdiction of the Superior Court (HC)
Each judge of the High Court of the State is appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Governor of the State. The number of Superior Court judges in a state varies by state. The total name of the games depending on the deux factors including the distribution of the affairs for the games and the dans of the HC, or in the different institutions of the main events of the course of the previous years of the nationale, selon la plus élevée of the two. The maximum age for the office of Superior Court judge is 62 years.
District Court (DC) Jurisdiction
The district courts of India are governed by session judges and district judges. The judge who presides over a criminal case is called a session judge and the judge who presides over a civil case is called a district judge. They are considered the highest authority in the state after the High Court judge. The state also has additional district judges and deputy district judges who depend on the number of cases in the state. Appointment of district judges is made by the governor after consultation with the chief justice of the state. To become a district judge, applicants must have completed seven years of practicing as an attorney.
Magistrates or Munsiff
They are appointed by the central or state government after consultation with the Chief Justice of the HC of the state in question.
Judicial Services: Eligibility criteria
Lower Judicial Services – The eligibility criteria for taking the Judicial Services Exam are as follows:
- Applicants must be Indian citizens
- The candidate must have an LL.B degree and
- You have registered or qualified to register as a lawyer under the Lawyers Act of 1961.
Seniors can also take the exam and no experience is required for the exam. The age limit is generally between 21 and 35 years old. However, it varies by state.
Higher Judicial Services – Applicants must have a law degree with a minimum number of years of litigation practice; usually seven years.