The Sample Registration System (SRS) is a large-scale demographic survey that provides reliable annual estimates of the infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate, and other indicators of fertility and mortality at the national and sub-national level. Experimentally launched by the Office of the Registrar General of India in selected states in 1964-1965, it became fully operational in 1969-1970 with approximately 3,700 sampling units.
How it prepared?
The field survey consists of a continuous count of births and deaths in sampling units selected by part-time resident interviewers, usually workers and teachers from Anganwadi; and an independent retrospective survey every six months by SRS supervisors. The data obtained by these two independent officials correspond. Incompatible and partially matched events are rechecked in the field, then an unduplicated number of births and deaths is obtained.
What are sampling units in different areas?
The sampling unit in rural areas is a village or a segment thereof (if the village population is 2000 or more). In urban areas, the sampling unit is a census enumeration block with a population ranging from 750 to 1,000 inhabitants. The SRS sample is replaced every ten years according to the last census framework. The current sample is based on the 2011 census database. Currently, the SRS is operating in 8847 sample units (4,961 rural and 3,886 urban) covering approximately 8.1 million inhabitants. , distributed in all the States and territories of the Union.
Birth Rates in India
The birth rate is a crude measure of the fertility of a population and is a crucial determinant of population growth. It gives the number of live births per thousand inhabitants in a given region and year. The birth rate at all levels in India has declined considerably over the past four decades, from 36.9 in 1971 to 20.0 in 2018. The rural-urban differential has also narrowed in these years. However, the birth rate has remained higher in rural areas than in urban areas for the past four decades. The birth rate has decreased by about 11% in the past decade, from 22.5 in 2009 to 20.0 in 2018. The corresponding decrease in rural areas is from 24.1 to 21.6, and for urban areas, it is from 18.3 to 16.7. In 2018, the birth rate for India varied from 16.7 in urban areas to 21.6 in rural areas. The highest birth rate was recorded in Bihar (26.2), while the lowest in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (11.2).
Death Rates in India
Death rate is one of the fundamental components of demographic change, and the associated data is essential for demographic studies and the public health administration. It is defined as the number of deaths per thousand inhabitants in a given region and period. The death rate in India has decreased significantly in the past four decades, from 14.9 in 1971 to 6.2 in 2018. The decline has been more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The death rate at all levels in India has increased from 7.3 to 6.2 in the last decade. The corresponding decrease in rural areas is from 7.8 to 6.7 and for urban areas, from 5.8 to 5.1. The rate of decline in these years has been greater in rural areas (around 14.5%) than in urban areas (12.7%). For the year 2018, the mortality rate in India varies from 5.1 in urban areas to 6.7 in rural areas. The death rate for Union States / Territories ranges from 3.3 in Delhi to 8.0 in Chhattisgarh for 2018. In 2018, Chhattisgarh had the highest death rate of 8.0, while the lowest death rate was recorded in Delhi with 3.3.
Infant Mortality Rates in India
The infant mortality rate (IMR), which is widely accepted as a crude indicator of the general health scenario of a country or region, is defined as infant mortality (less than a year) per thousand live births in a specified period of time and for a given region The present level of IMR (32 infant deaths per thousand live births, for the year 2018) is about one-fourth as compared to 1971 (129 infant deaths per thousand live births). In the last ten years, IMR has witnessed a decline of about 35% in rural areas and about 32% in urban areas. IMR at all India level has declined from 50 to 32 in the last decade. The corresponding decline in rural areas is 55 to 36, and for urban areas it is from 34 to 23. Despite the decline in IMR over the last decades, one in every 31 infants die within first year of their life at the National level (irrespective of rura-lurban); one in every 28 infants in rural areas and one in every 43 infants in urban areas still die within one year of life. Among the States/Union Territories, the IMR ranges from 4 in Nagaland to 48 in Madhya Pradesh for 2018. In 2018, the maximum IMR has been reported for Madhya Pradesh (48) and the minimum for Nagaland (4).